Cancer

Cancer is defined as a disease caused by uncontrollable division of abnormal cells in a part of a body leading to tissue destruction. Cancers are classified by the type of tissue in which they originate and the location in the body where the cancer first developed. There are hundreds of different cancers which are grouped into six major categories including Carcinoma, Sarcoma, Myeloma, Leukemia, Lymphoma, and Mixed types. Many cancers form tumors, a solid mass of abnormal cells, while other cancers such as leukemia generally do not. Tumors classified as malignant, invade its surrounding tissue or spread throughout the body.

Hypoxia (low tissue oxygenation) is a critical hallmark of solid tumors 1. Cancer cells adapt, survive, and grow in this microenvironment. Hypoxia has been implicated in resistance to conventional therapy 3 and is considered as one of the main targets in cancer treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjuvant to standard of care has been shown to inhibit and reduce tumor growth in certain cancer types 2.

We do not claim HBOT to be a cancer cure. Extivita recommends Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy as an adjuvant, in combination with other therapeutic modalities such as radio-, chemo-, photodynamic therapy, metabolic anti-cancer therapy, and deliberate lifestyle modalities as HBOT alone gives a limited curative effect 3. Hyperbaric oxygen is safe and well tolerated by patients with rare and limited side effects.

HBOT Research Shows Improvement To:

  • Survival time3 when used in conjunction with other therapies (as stated above)
  • Wound healing speed when used during surgical procedures3
  • Reduction in Surgical pain3
  • Prevention post radiation injury of normal tissue3

Benefits of HBOT for Cancer:

Increases Amount of Oxygen in the Blood

Stimulates development of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels as well as the natural development of new blood vessels.

Prevents Further Cellular Damage

Preserves the integrity of blood vessel cells. This cellular protection helps improve blood flow to tissues and organs when damaged by conditions such as heart attack or stroke.

Accelerates Wound Healing

Increases production of nitric oxide in the bone marrow and microvasculature (smaller blood vessels). Stimulates stem cells from the bone marrow, accelerating wound healing. Dilation of smaller blood vessels enhances blood flow to areas of local tissue damage, hypoxia, and ischemia.

Key Research on Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment for Cancer

Overcoming tumor hypoxia as a barrier to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer treatment.

Hypoxia exists to some degree in most solid tumors due to inadequate oxygen delivery of the abnormal vasculature which cannot meet the demands of the rapidly proliferating cancer cells. The levels of oxygenation within the same tumor are highly variable from one area to another and can change over time. Tumor hypoxia is an important impediment to effective cancer therapy. In radiotherapy, the primary mechanism is the creation of reactive oxygen species; hypoxic tumors are therefore radiation resistant. A number of chemotherapeutic drugs have been shown to be less effective when exposed to a hypoxic environment which can lead to further disease progression.

Oxygen-dependent regulation of tumor growth and metastasis in human breast cancer xenografts.

Tumor hypoxia is relevant for tumor growth, metabolism, resistance to chemotherapy and metastasis. We have previously shown that hyperoxia, using hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), attenuates tumor growth and shifts the phenotype from mesenchymal to epithelial (MET) in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. This study describes the effect of HBOT on tumor growth, angiogenesis, chemotherapy efficacy and metastasis in a triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer model, and evaluates tumor growth using a triple positive BT-474 breast cancer model. 5 x 105 cancer cells were injected s.c. in the groin area of NOD/SCID female mice. The BT-474 group was supplied with Progesterone and Estradiol pellets 2-days prior to tumor cell injection. Mice were divided into controls (1 bar, pO2 = 0.2 bar) or HBOT (2.5 bar, pO2 = 2.5 bar, 90 min, every third day until termination of the experiments).

Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunctive therapy in treatment of malignancies, including brain tumours.

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is widely used as an adjunctive treatment for various pathological states, predominantly related to hypoxic and/or ischaemic conditions. It also holds promise as an approach to overcoming the problem of oxygen deficiency in the poorly oxygenated regions of the neoplastic tissue. Occurrence of local hypoxia within the central areas of solid tumours is one of the major issues contributing to ineffective medical treatment. However, in anti-cancer therapy, HBO alone gives a limited curative effect and is typically not applied by itself. More often, HBO is used as an adjuvant treatment along with other therapeutic modalities, such as radio- and chemotherapy.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cancer–a review.

Hypoxia is a critical hallmark of solid tumors and involves enhanced cell survival, angiogenesis, glycolytic metabolism, and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has for centuries been used to improve or cure disorders involving hypoxia and ischemia, by enhancing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the plasma and thereby increasing O(2) delivery to the tissue. Studies on HBO and cancer have up to recently focused on whether enhanced oxygen acts as a cancer promoter or not. As oxygen is believed to be required for all the major processes of wound healing, one feared that the effects of HBO would be applicable to cancer tissue as well and promote cancer growth. Furthermore, one also feared that exposing patients who had been treated for cancer, to HBO, would lead to recurrence.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for late radiation tissue injury in gynecologic malignancies.

Late radiation tissue injury is a serious complication of radiotherapy for patients with gynecologic malignancies. Strategies for managing pain and other clinical features have limited efficacy; however, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO(2)) may be an effective option for some patients. In a systematic review of the literature, the Ovid medline, embase, Cochrane Library, National Guidelines Clearinghouse, and Canadian Medical Association Infobase databases were searched to June 2009 for clinical practice guidelines, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, or other relevant evidence. Studies that did not evaluate soft tissue necrosis, cystitis, proctitis, bone necrosis, and other complications were excluded.

The effect of oxygenation on the biological behaviour of tumours.

Malignant tumours often display hypoxic tissue areas where the oxygen tension is < 7 mm Hg. Studies in this field have proved that the hypoxic state boosts tumour progression and aggressive behaviour. In tissue culture experiments "in vitro" oxygenation was found to inhibit in itself the proliferation of cells of healthy tissues as well as benign and malignant tumours. It is a very important observation from oncotherapeutic point of view that in the presence of partial oxygen pressure < 2.5 mm Hg the radiosensitivity decreases (intrinsic radioresistance). Most of the anticancer drugs (cytostatics) are also ineffective in hypoxic tumours (chemoresistance).

Recent News on Hyberbaric Oxygen Treatment for Cancer

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019 – Sensing oxygen levels

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019 – Sensing oxygen levels

The AC133 antigen is a novel antigen selectively expressed on a subset of CD34+ cells in human fetal liver, bone marrow, and blood as demonstrated by flow cytometric analyses. In this study, we have further assessed the expression of AC133 on CD34+ cells in hemopoietic samples and found that there was a highly significant difference between normal bone marrow and cord blood versus aphereses (p <0.0001) but not between bone marrow and cord blood. Most of the clonogenic cells (67%) were contained in the CD34+AC133+ fraction. Compared with cultures of the CD34+AC133- cells, generation of progenitor cells in long-term culture on bone marrow stroma was consistently 10- to 100-fold higher in cultures initiated with CD34+AC133+ cells and was maintained for the 8-10 weeks of culture.

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Additional Research

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for postoperative ischemic bronchitis after resection of lung cancer.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used successfully in the treatment of specific ischemic injuries, but has been a little evaluated specifically in postoperative ischemic bronchitis (POIB). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBOT when used for POIB after resection of lung cancer. From January 1999 to December 2016, 1,100 patients underwent lymph node dissection (LND) and either anatomic pulmonary resection or lung resection with bronchoplasty for lung cancer. POIB was diagnosed by bronchoscopy. HBOT was administered after POIB was diagnosed. HBOT comprised one 60-minute session daily in the hyperbaric chamber at 2.0 absolute atmospheres with 100% oxygen.

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Radiation-induced skin reactions: mechanism and treatment.

Radiotherapy (RT) is a major treatment for malignant tumors. The latest data show that >70% of patients with malignant tumors need RT at different periods. Skin changes can be experienced by up to 95% of patients who underwent RT. Inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) have been shown to be generally associated with radiation-induced skin reactions (RISRs). Inflammatory response and OS interact and promote each other during RISRs. Severe skin reactions often have a great impact on the progress of RT. The treatment of RISRs is particularly critical because advanced RT technology can also lead to skin reactions. RISRs are classified into acute and chronic reactions.

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Hyperbaric oxygen combined with 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy inhibited human squamous cell proliferation.

he photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the presence of molecular oxygen. Thus, the efficiency of PDT is limited in anoxic regions of tumor tissue and vascular shutdown. It is reported the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) may enhance the efficiency of PDT. However, there are rarely studies about utilizing HBO plus PDT for treatment with human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and compare the therapeutic effect of combined therapy and PDT alone treatment. Multiple cellular and molecular biology techniques were used in the current study such as CCK-8, western blotting, flow cytometry, MDC staining and immunofluorescence assay.

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A Case of Refractory Hemorrhagic Cystitis in which Bleeding Control was Finally Achieved by Cystectomy.

A 60-year-old man presented at our hospital with gross hematuria. He had been treated for nephrotic syndrome with cyclophosphamide and steroids since he was in his 20s. We detected diffuse hemorrhagic cystitis on cystoscopy and diagnosed him with cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. He was hospitalized due to clot retention. We treated him with blood transfusion for severe anemia and conducted continuous bladder irrigation. We performed hyperbaric oxygen therapy and transurethral electric coagulation, and increased the steroid dose. However, we could not control the hematuria. Finally, we performed cystectomy, and he is now well without hematuria. Although cystectomy is the final option, it is important to decide it in a timely manner because a delay decreases the quality of life.

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Hemorrhagic Cystitis: Treatment With Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a rare treatment modality for hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) following BK virus reactivation in the immunosuppressed population. Clinicians need to be aware of the etiology, preventive measures, complications, and various management techniques in HC while treating patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. This study details the pathologic progression of HC in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia harboring BK virus after cytotoxic induction chemotherapy and haploidentical marrow transplantation. A search of PubMed for literature published from 1973-2018 was conducted using keywords.

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Overcoming tumor hypoxia as a barrier to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy in cancer treatment.

Hypoxia exists to some degree in most solid tumors due to inadequate oxygen delivery of the abnormal vasculature which cannot meet the demands of the rapidly proliferating cancer cells. The levels of oxygenation within the same tumor are highly variable from one area to another and can change over time. Tumor hypoxia is an important impediment to effective cancer therapy. In radiotherapy, the primary mechanism is the creation of reactive oxygen species; hypoxic tumors are therefore radiation resistant. A number of chemotherapeutic drugs have been shown to be less effective when exposed to a hypoxic environment which can lead to further disease progression.

read more

Long-term outcomes of interventions for radiation-induced xerostomia: A review.

Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a significant problem affecting quality of life in patients treated with radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Strategies for reduction of xerostomia burden vary widely, with options including: sialagogue medications, saliva substitutes, acupuncture, vitamins, hyperbaric oxygen, submandibular gland transfer, and acupuncture or associated treatments. In this review, we sought to evaluate long-term outcomes of patients treated with various interventions for radiation-induced xerostomia. A literature search was performed using the terms “xerostomia” and “radiation” or “radiotherapy”; all prospective clinical trials were evaluated, and only studies that reported 1 year follow up were included.

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The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Chronic Radiation Proctitis.

The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. The Clinical Practice Guidelines Committee is charged with leading international efforts in defining quality care for conditions related to the colon, rectum, and anus by developing clinical practice guidelines based on the best available evidence. These guidelines are inclusive, not prescriptive, and are intended for the use of all practitioners, healthcare workers, and patients who desire information about the management of the conditions addressed by the topics covered in these guidelines. Their purpose is to provide information on which decisions can be made rather than to dictate a specific form of treatment.

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Further application of hyperbaric oxygen in prostate cancer.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment for multiple pathological states, which involves hypoxic conditions. Over the past 50 years, HBOT has been recommended and used in a wide variety of medical conditions, clinically in the treatment of ischemic or nonhealing wounds and radiation-injured tissue, and in the treatment of malignancy. The mechanism of this treatment is providing oxygen under pressure which is higher than the atmosphere thus increasing tissue oxygen concentration. When cells get enough oxygen in the microenvironment, they become active and replicate effectively. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer death among male around the world.

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Progressive resistance training to prevent arm lymphedema in the first year after breast cancer surgery: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

Existing research suggests that progressive resistance training (PRT) after breast cancer (BC) surgery is safe, but the preventive effect on arm lymphedema has yet to be determined. Women aged 18 to 75 years who were undergoing BC surgery with axillary lymph node dissection were eligible for the study. Recruited on the day of surgery, participants were allocated to intervention or usual care by computer randomization. The intervention consisted of PRT 3 times per week: in the first 20 weeks as a supervised group exercise and in the last 30 weeks as a self-administered exercise. The primary outcome was arm lymphedema, which was defined as a >3% increase in the interlimb volume difference by water displacement.

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References
  1. Yttersian Sletta K, Tveitarås MK, Lu N, Engelsen AST, Reed RK, et al. (2017) Oxygen-dependent regulation of tumor growth and metastasis in human breast cancer xenografts. PLOS ONE 12(8): e0183254.
  2. Moen, I. & Stuhr, L.E.B. (2012) Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and cancer-a review. Targ Oncology 7: 233.
  3. Stępień, K., Ostrowski, R.P. & Matyja, E. (2016) Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunctive therapy in treatment of malignancies, including brain tumours. Med Oncol 33: 101.

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