Crohn’s Disease (CD)
Crohn’s Disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by chronic inflammation of the GI tract at any location or layer. Patients with Crohn’s typically experience diarrhea, fever, fatigue, abdominal pain, and appetite and weight loss to name the main symptoms1. These symptoms can have a slow onset, a rapid onset, and in some cases, may not appear for long periods of time (remission)2. A review of literature on HBOT and IBD found that 75% of Crohn’s patients improved when treated with HBOT at 2.0-2.8 ATA3. The anti-inflammatory properties of HBOT via decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to such improvements 4, 5. Additionally, many studies have shown that stem cell therapy has benefits for Crohn’s patients (6) and HBOT is known to stimulate the growth and differentiation of stem cells7.
Results of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on Chron’s:
- Decreased inflammatory markers
- Increased anti-inflammatory markers
- Increased stem cell production
Benefits of HBOT for Crohn’s Disease (CD):
Reduces Inflammation & Swelling
Suppresses the cellular activity of the immune system which triggers swelling when an injury or damage to the body occurs. While this reaction is meant to start healing and protect from injury it can result in secondary injury, pain, and prolonged recovery time.
Preserves, Repairs, & Enhances Cellular Functions
Boosts cellular metabolism, promotes rapid cell reproduction, and enhances collagen synthesis. Collagen is a protein in connective tissues like skin.
Key Research on Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment for Crohn’s Disease
Recent News on Hyberbaric Oxygen Treatment for Crohn’s Disease
One of the earliest documented cases of HBOT to treat complications of Crohn’s disease (CD) was in 1989. It was a woman with “severe perineal CD that defied medical therapy for eight years”. In this particular case the woman was treated with HBOT over a course…
With Her Son Suffering from a Mysterious Illness, One Mother Finds Hope in an Experimental Treatment
The lowest point comes a few months later, when he undergoes an endoscopy-colonoscopy-biopsy. He has a bad reaction to the general anesthesia—as he comes out of it, his eyes bulge wide and he starts wailing, a loud, screechy sob that reminds me of ghok, the…
One woman with UC shares how hyperbaric oxygen therapy helped her recover from a severe flare.There is no cure for ulcerative colitis. It took me a long time to realize that the chronic condition is a lifelong journey with a number of therapies that can help along the…
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Abstract: BACKGROUND: Perianal fistulizing Crohn’s disease (pCD) has a significant impact on patients’ health and quality of life. Current treatment options have a relatively low success rate and a high recurrence risk. Positive effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2)…
Abstract: No Abstract Available Meah, Subramanian, Khirwadkar, Cope, Bell (2018). Recalcitrant Vulval and Perineal Crohn Disease Responding to Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy. Journal of lower genital tract disease, 2018…
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Perianal involvement occurs in about 30% of children with Crohn’s disease (CD). Treatment of perianal CD requires a multidisciplinary approach with a combination of immunomodulatory therapy, antibiotics and surgery. Hyperbaric oxygen…
Adjunctive Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy promotes successful healing in patients with refractory Crohn’s disease.
To investigate de adjunctive effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in a group of patients with refractory Crohn’s disease. A total of 29 subjects with refractory Crohn’s disease were submitted to daily sessions of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy, in a 2800 Sechrist Monoplace Hyperbaric Chamber (Sechrist, USA) pressurized to 2.4 ATA. Each session lasted 2 hours. The endpoint was closure of enterocutaneous fistulas and complete healing of Pyoderma Gangrenosum and perineal Crohn’s disease. A total of 829 HBOT sessions were performed and no complications were noted. Overall success rate was 76% (22 cases). Pyoderma Gangrenosum and enterocutaneous fistulas had the highest successful healing rates (100% and 91%, respectively).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be efficacious in treating various conditions, including perianal Crohn’s disease. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old male with a history of ulcerative colitis, who underwent a total proctocolectomy and two-stage J-pouch construction. He later developed chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis with endoscopic features of ischemia. At the completion of HOBT-a total of 20 sessions of 100% oxygen at 2.5-3.0 atmospheres absolute for 60-90 minutes per session-a repeat pouchoscopy showed marked improvement of endoscopic mucosal inflammation. HBOT is known to increase tissue oxygenation, reduce tissue hypoxia, alter inflammatory pathways and promote tissue healing.
Combining infliximab, anti-MAP and hyperbaric oxygen therapy for resistant fistulizing Crohn’s disease.
Fistulizing Crohn’s disease (CD) presents a therapeutic challenge as fistulae are notoriously difficult to heal. Mycobacterium avium ss paratuberculosis (MAP) treatment in CD is gaining attention. We evaluated healing of CD fistula(e) using a novel combination therapy. Nine consecutive patients who failed to heal fistulae on conventional treatment including anti-TNF, were treated with at least three doses of infliximab, 18-30 courses of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and anti-MAP antibiotics comprising rifabutin, clarithromycin and clofazimine. All patients achieved complete healing of fistulae by 6-28 weeks and follow-up for mean 18 months.
Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease
Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects.
Complex perianal disease is associated with poor outcome and requires early effective therapy. Corticosteroids are not effective in perianal fistulising Crohn’s disease, and antibiotics, immunosuppressants and anti-TNF therapy are required. It is important to consider combined medical surgical therapy after accurate imaging using an MRI scan of the pelvis. Drainage of any abscess at examination under anaesthesia and seton insertion are important before introduction of immunosuppressants and anti-TNF therapy. Long-term follow up of patients in a single centre reported responders to azathioprine having a reduced risk of perianal surgery (OR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.27-0.46), but complex perianal fistulising Crohn’s disease generally requires combination therapy with anti-TNF and azathioprine.
Systematic review: The safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) provides 100% oxygen under pressure, which increases tissue oxygen levels, relieves hypoxia and alters inflammatory pathways. Although there is experience using HBOT in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, the safety and overall efficacy of HBOT in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown. To quantify the safety and efficacy of HBOT for Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The rate of adverse events with HBOT for IBD was compared to the expected rate of adverse events with HBOT. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Collaboration and Web of Knowledge were systematically searched using the PRISMA standards for systematic reviews. Seventeen studies involving 613 patients (286 CD, 327 UC) were included.
Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, usually involving the ileum, that can lead to debilitating symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea and malabsorption during acute exacerbations. Because there is no known cause of the illness, treatment is based upon symptomatology and may ultimately require bowel resection if response to medical therapy is inadequate. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen has shown promise in the reduction of inflammation associated with acute exacerbations of Crohn’s disease, with alleviation of symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. We present two cases of pediatric patients with exacerbations of Crohn’s disease who underwent cycles of hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
- “Ulcerative Colitis vs Crohn’s Disease – UCLA Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – Los Angeles, CA.” Accessed July 12, 2019. https://www.crohnsandcolitis.com/ulcerative-colitis?cid=ppc_ppd_ggl_uc_da_colitis_vs_crohn%27s_Phrase_64Z1867746&gclid=EAIaIQobChMI2faS7anB4wIVCZSzCh1u1wCjEAAYASAAEgI0uvD_BwE
- “Crohn’s Disease – Symptoms and Causes.” Mayo Clinic. Accessed July 9, 2019. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/crohns-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20353304.
- Rossignol, Daniel A. “Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Analysis.” Medical Gas Research 2, no. 1 (March 15, 2012): 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/2045-9912-2-6.g
- Akin, M. L., B. M. Gulluoglu, H. Uluutku, C. Erenoglu, E. Elbuken, S. Yildirim, and T. Celenk. “Hyperbaric Oxygen Improves Healing in Experimental Rat Colitis.” Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc 29, no. 4 (2002): 279–85. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12797669
- Granowitz, E. V., E. J. Skulsky, R. M. Benson, J. Wright, J. L. Garb, E. R. Cohen, E. C. Smithline, and R. B. Brown. “Exposure to Increased Pressure or Hyperbaric Oxygen Suppresses Interferon-Gamma Secretion in Whole Blood Cultures of Healthy Humans.” Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc 29, no. 3 (2002): 216–25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12670123
- Garcia-Olmo, Damian, Mariano Garcia-Arranz, and Dolores Herreros. “Expanded Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for the Treatment of Complex Perianal Fistula Including Crohn’s Disease.” Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 8, no. 9 (September 2008): 1417–23. https://doi.org/10.1517/147125184.108.40.2067.
- Milovanova, Tatyana N., Veena M. Bhopale, Elena M. Sorokina, Jonni S. Moore, Thomas K. Hunt, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Omaida C. Velazquez, and Stephen R. Thom. “Hyperbaric Oxygen Stimulates Vasculogenic Stem Cell Growth and Differentiation in Vivo.” Journal of Applied Physiology 106, no. 2 (February 2009): 711–28. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.91054.2008.