In an attempt to improve the antitumor efficacy of bleomycin, the effects of the oxygen-carrying emulsion Fluosol-DA and increased levels of inspired oxygen were tested in the mouse FSaIIC fibrosarcoma system. The dose-dependent cytotoxicity of bleomycin toward the FSaIIC cells in vitro was significantly decreased under hypoxic conditions, but it increased in a 95% O2-5% CO2 (carbogen) atmosphere as compared with the cytotoxicity of bleomycin in normally oxygenated cells. Investigations on the FSaIIC tumor in vivo also demonstrated that growth delays induced by bleomycin (10 mg/kg ip given on days 6, 10, 13, and 16) were significantly increased when one of the following treatments was given with each bleomycin injection: carbogen breathing for 2 hours (4.7 days), carbogen breathing for 6 hours (5.7 days), and breathing 3 atm of hyperbaric oxygen (6.3 days) versus normal air (3.3 days). When Fluosol-DA (12 mL/kg iv) was administered just before each bleomycin injection, the following growth delays were produced: 4.8 days with air breathing, 14.6 days with carbogen breathing for 2 hours, 14.9 days with carbogen breathing for 6 hours, and 19.7 days with breathing 100% O2 at 3 atm for 1 hour. Excision studies on the FSaIIC tumor also demonstrated that the cytotoxicity increased approximately fivefold when Fluosol-DA and carbogen breathing for 2 hours were combined with a single treatment with 10 mg of bleomycin/kg. In contrast, no measurable bone marrow toxicity was evident with this combined regimen. These results suggest that the use of Fluosol-DA plus carbogen breathing could add substantially to the clinical antitumor effects of bleomycin.
Teicher, Holden, Cathcart, Herman, , , , , (1988). Effect of various oxygenation conditions and fluosol-DA on cytotoxicity and antitumor activity of bleomycin in mice. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1988 Jun;80(8):599-603. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2453675