Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used successfully in the treatment of specific ischemic injuries, but has been a little evaluated specifically in postoperative ischemic bronchitis (POIB). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HBOT when used for POIB after resection of lung cancer. From January 1999 to December 2016, 1,100 patients underwent lymph node dissection (LND) and either anatomic pulmonary resection or lung resection with bronchoplasty for lung cancer. POIB was diagnosed by bronchoscopy. HBOT was administered after POIB was diagnosed. HBOT comprised one 60-minute session daily in the hyperbaric chamber at 2.0 absolute atmospheres with 100% oxygen.