Meningococcal septic shock (MSS) has high mortality and morbidity rates. In addition to the traditional prompt antibiotics and respiratory and circulatory support, new treatment strategies have been proposed. Immunotherapy, such as antiserum to Escherichia coli J5 and human antilipid A monoclonal antibodies/centoxin (HA-1A), did not significantly alter the mortality rate of MSS; we are awaiting the results of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein multicenter trial. Two series reported the effects of hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration in MSS, but the true benefits remain unknown. In MSS, heparin is still controversial and antithrombin concentrate use has been reported in only one child. Several case reports on protein C and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator have been published; the efficacy (improvement in shock and organ dysfunction and reduction in amputation rate) and safety (intracerebral hemorrhage with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator) of these treatments need further evaluation. Blood and plasma exchange appear to be safe and are supposed to reduce mortality, but it is difficult to draw firm conclusions from published studies. Finally, local application of medicinal leeches has been reported to improve purpuric lesions. Prostacyclin, or epoprostenol, infusion, sodium nitroprussiate infusion, sympathetic blockade, and topical nitroglycerin have been reported to improve distal perfusion; however, these reports are all anecdotal.

Leclerc, Leteurtre, Cremer, Fourier, Sadik, , , , (2000). Do new strategies in meningococcemia produce better outcomes? Critical care medicine, 2000 Sep;28(9 Suppl):S60-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11007200