Treatment of perianal inflammatory lesions in Crohn’s disease (CD) is unsatisfactory and novel treatment modalities are pursued. We have recently reported a good clinical effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment in perianal CD. In the present study, seven patients with perianal CD were subjected to daily sessions of HBO in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. Each patient received a total of 20 sessions during a time period of 1 month, and IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha measurements were done several times during the initial sessions and after completing therapy. Pretreatment cytokine levels were elevated in patients compared to age-matched 10 normal controls. During the first 7 days of treatment, IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels in supernatants of LPS-stimulated monocytes derived from patients’ peripheral blood were decreased compared to pretreatment levels. Parallel measurements of serum IL-1 levels revealed an initial elevation and thereafter decreased levels, which remained low throughout the first week of HBO treatment. After completion of therapy, cytokine levels increased to pretreatment values. We conclude that alterations in secretion of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha may be related to the good clinical effect of HBO treatment in CD patients with perianal disease.

Weisz, Lavy, Adir, Melamed, Rubin, Eidelman, Pollack (1997). Modification of in vivo and in vitro TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 secretion by circulating monocytes during hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with perianal Crohn’s disease.¬†Journal of clinical immunology, 1997 Mar;17(2):154-9.¬†https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9083891