To critically review and summarize existing literature assessing the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) for the treatment of radiation-induced urologic injury. Though 5 of the included 13 studies were published in the last 2-3 years, the only randomized controlled study was performed in 2012. Recent studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of HBOT as well as identified risk factors for success vs. failure of HBOT for hemorrhagic radiation cystitis (HRC). Of the 602 patients that received HBOT for HRC, 84% had a partial or complete resolution. In the 7 studies that utilized RTOG/EORTC, 75% of patients saw an improvement in hematuria of at least one grade (out of possible 5 total). Of the 499 patients with documented follow-up, 14% experienced recurrence, with a median time to recurrence of 10 months (6 to 16.5 months).

Cardinal, Slade, McFarland, Keihani, Hotaling, Myers, , , (2018). Scoping Review and Meta-analysis of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radiation-Induced Hemorrhagic Cystitis. Current urology reports, 2018 Apr;19(6):38. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29654564