Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is a rare, life-threatening disease, typically affecting patients with end-stage renal disease. It is characterized by widespread vascular calcification, endothelial fibrosis and end-organ ischemia. The mortality rate is high with infection and sepsis being the most common causes of death. Common therapies include restoration of calcium and phosphorous homeostasis, wound care and pain control. Although soft tissue calcification is a known complication in children with advanced renal disease, the incidence of CUA in pediatrics remains unknown. Additionally, current literature regarding its management in pediatric patients is lacking. We report the case of a 17-year-old African-American male patient with end-stage renal disease secondary to Wegener’s granulomatosis who developed CUA after 3 years on peritoneal dialysis. Treatment with sodium thiosulfate (STS) and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy alone was ineffective, forcing the patient to undergo bilateral below the-knee-amputation (BKA) 5 months after presentation. It was not until peritoneal dialysis had been changed to daily hemodialysis, while continuing STS and HBO therapy, that the patient demonstrated complete resolution of CUA on repeat bone scan. Based on these findings, and the extremely high mortality rate associated with this disease, CUA management requires early and aggressive intervention with multi-faceted therapy, including prompt conversion from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis, STS infusions and hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Amin, Gonzalez, Lieber, Salusky, Zaritsky, , , , (2010). Successful treatment of calcific uremic arteriolopathy in a pediatric dialysis patient. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany), 2010 Feb;25(2):357-62. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19885686