Severe decompression illness (DCI) is an uncommon medical issue affecting divers and results mainly from rapid surfacing using inadequate decompression protocols. Massive gas embolism with central nervous system involvement often leads to a poor prognosis, with permanent residual neurologic defects. Moreover, DCI complicated with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is tremendously rare and difficult to cure, although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy following the U.S. Navy Treatment Tables is a consensus. We report a case of severe DCI with profound shock and MODS after an initial treatment with HBO2 therapy using U.S. Navy Treatment Table 6A. Following the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Guidelines, low-dose hydrocortisone was administered. Although this treatment went against recommendation of the U.S. Navy Diving Manual, it resulted in a dramatic clinical improvement. After a second round of HBO2 treatments, the patient was discharged from hospital two weeks after the diving accident.

Lee, Peng, Chang, Shen, Huang (2018). Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines for a diver with DCI: case report. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, ;45(4):473-479. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30241128