Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States. It typically presents during childhood but persists through adolescence and adulthood in roughly 80% of ADHD cases(1). There are three types of ADHD; inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Individuals with inattentive presentation are easily distracted and forgetful. They have difficulty paying attention to tasks, may not be able to organize or finish a task, and can have issues following instructions. Hyperactive-impulsive individuals are often very fidgety and may talk over and interrupt others. They are typically restless, and have difficulty staying still for long periods of time. Combined presentation is when both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive characteristics present equally(2). Treatment for ADHD typically involves cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication. However, there are many individuals who don’t respond to either CBT or medication, and medication is only a short-term treatment that has many potential side effects(3).

 

Extivita Therapies for ADHD:

  • Neurofeedback

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders in the United States. It typically presents during childhood but persists through adolescence and adulthood in roughly 80% of ADHD cases(1). There are three types of ADHD; inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and combined. Individuals with inattentive presentation are easily distracted and forgetful. They have difficulty paying attention to tasks, may not be able to organize or finish a task, and can have issues following instructions. Hyperactive-impulsive individuals are often very fidgety and may talk over and interrupt others. They are typically restless, and have difficulty staying still for long periods of time. Combined presentation is when both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive characteristics present equally(2). Treatment for ADHD typically involves cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication. However, there are many individuals who don’t respond to either CBT or medication, and medication is only a short-term treatment that has many potential side effects(3).

 

Extivita Therapies for ADHD:

  • Neurofeedback

Extivita Therapies ADHD Recovery:

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback​:

Neurofeedback protocols for ADHD typically train the brain to reduce theta activity and/or increase beta activity in the frontocentral lobes(9). Another common protocol is sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) training, which trains the brain to increase low beta activity (12-15Hz) centrally(9). While these protocols can be used as a foundation in Neurofeedback protocol development, there is no single protocol that will be effective for everyone with ADHD. Training that takes into account the individual’s EEG brain map, their clinical symptoms, and Neurofeedback research is the most effective Neurofeedback protocol for ADHD.

Common EEG Abnormalities in ADHD:

  • Increased relative theta activity and decreased relative beta activity in the frontocentral lobes in children(4, 5, 6)
  • Decreased relative alpha activity in children(5)
  • Increased relative theta activity in adults(7, 8).

Learn more about Neurofeedback…

Recent ADHD News & Research:

Neurofeedback Treatments Rated Effective in ADHD

Neurofeedback Treatments Rated Effective in ADHD

Neurofeedback treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate medium to large effect sizes and remission rates between 32% and 47%, according to a study published online in the journal Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback. “Standard neurofeedback protocols in the treatment of ADHD can be concluded to be a well-established treatment, or ‘efficacious and specific’ in line with the American Psychological Association guidelines,” researchers wrote.

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Use of EEG to diagnose ADHD

Use of EEG to diagnose ADHD

Electroencephalography (EEG) has, historically, played a focal role in the assessment of neural function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review here the most recent developments in the utility of EEG in the diagnosis of ADHD, with emphasis on the most commonly used and emerging EEG metrics and their reliability in diagnostic classification. Considering the clinical heterogeneity of ADHD and the complexity of information available from the EEG signals, we suggest that considerab

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A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Qualitative and quantitative electroencephalography

A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: I. Qualitative and quantitative electroencephalography

This article reviews the electroencephalography (EEG) literature in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). The review briefly outlines the history of the disorder, focusing on the changing diagnostic systems which both reflect and constrain research into AD/HD. Both qualitative and quantitative EEG studies are examined, and their results are discussed in relation to various models of AD/HD. Implications of these data for future research and development in AD/HD are considered.

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References
  1. Araone, Stephen V., et al. “The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD:  Is It an American Condition?” World Psychiatry, vol. 2, no. 2, June 2003, pp. 104–13.
  2. CDC. “What Is ADHD?” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 21 Sept. 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/facts.html.
  3. Budur, Kumar, et al. “Non-Stimulant Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Psychiatry (Edgmont), vol. 2, no. 7, July 2005, pp. 44–48.
  4. Lenartowicz, Agatha, and Sandra K. Loo. “Use of EEG to Diagnose ADHD.” Current Psychiatry Reports, vol. 16, no. 11, Nov. 2014, p. 498. PubMed Central, doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0498-0.
  5. Barry, Robert J., et al. “A Review of Electrophysiology in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: I. Qualitative and Quantitative Electroencephalography.” Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 114, no. 2, Feb. 2003, pp. 171–83. PubMed, doi:10.1016/s1388-2457(02)00362-0.
  6. Lubar, J. F. “Discourse on the Development of EEG Diagnostics and Biofeedback for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders.” Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, vol. 16, no. 3, Sept. 1991, pp. 201–25. PubMed, doi:10.1007/BF01000016.
  7. Bresnahan, Susan M., and Robert J. Barry. “Specificity of Quantitative EEG Analysis in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Psychiatry Research, vol. 112, no. 2, Oct. 2002, pp. 133–44. ScienceDirect, doi:10.1016/S0165-1781(02)00190-7.