Neurofeedback treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate medium to large effect sizes and remission rates between 32% and 47%, according to a study published online in the journal Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.

“[S]tandard neurofeedback protocols in the treatment of ADHD can be concluded to be a well-established treatment, or ‘efficacious and specific’ in line with the American Psychological Association guidelines,” researchers wrote.

The quantitative review employed a stricter version of American Psychological Association guidelines for rating “well-established” treatments. In addition to addressing treatment efficacy and effectiveness/clinical utility, the study included only recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses with more than 2 independent randomized controlled trials and factored in effect sizes and remission rates.

Standard neurofeedback protocols offered significant efficacy for parent- and teacher-rated symptoms in a pair of meta-analyses, according to the study. The effect size was medium, and effects were sustained after 6 to 12 months.

Meanwhile, 4 multicenter randomized controlled trials found significant superiority for standard neurofeedback protocols, relative to semi-active control groups, at post-treatment or at follow-up. Effect sizes were medium to large, and remission rates ranged from 32% to 47%.

Three open-label studies confirmed effectiveness, researchers reported, and no signs of publication bias were found. Furthermore, no studies reported any significant side effects of standard neurofeedback treatment.

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