Buerger’s disease (thromboangiitis obliterans) is an uncommon vascular occlusive disease most commonly affecting the lower extremities of young male tobacco smokers. We report the case of a thirty-five-year-old man who presented with nonhealing ulcerations of several toes. Arteriography revealed severe bilateral vascular occlusion. The patient failed to respond to intensive topical care, nifedipine, pentoxifylline, hyperbaric oxygen, intravenous antibiotics, and whirlpool. He continued to smoke, and eventually became septic, requiring amputations of his gangrenous left second toe and right leg below the knee.

Ambrosi, Rapini, , , , , , , (1993). A case of Buerger’s disease. Cutis, 1993 Mar;51(3):180-2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8444049