In this report, we described a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with leukoencephalopathy that responded to oxygenation under hyperbaric pressure (OHP) therapy. The patient was 6 year-old female who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) one year and 9 months earlier. After the first relapse of the central nervous system (CNS) leukemia, intrathecal administration of methotrexate (MTX) and skull irradiation induced CNS remission. The patient was readmitted because of second CNS relapse. After the third administration of weekly intrathecal MTX injection, apathy and finger tremor were observed. Her conscious disturbance continued for two weeks and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal findings in the white matter of her brain. Subsequently OHP therapy was commenced, and the conscious disturbance was improved gradually. One month later, neuro-disturbance resolved completely and the findings of MRI were improved. We could not find any case of leukoencephalopathy which was treated with OHP in the literature. But our case suggested that OHP therapy is valuable in patient with leukoencephalopathy in the early stage.
Kanekura, Takezaki, Kawakami, , , , , , (1992). [A case report of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with leukoencephalopathy that responded to oxygenation under hyperbaric pressure therapy]. [Rinsho ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology, 1992 Sep;33(9):1221-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1433944