Immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is particularly associated with an excessive reaction to exercise and/or cold stress. IPE usually resolves without recompression therapy within a day or two. Herein we report a diver diagnosed with IPE, in whom symptoms persisted for five days. A 58-year-old man presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea, cough and haemoptysis after surfacing. He was an experienced diving instructor with a history of moderate mitral valve regurgitation. While IPE was diagnosed and oxygen administered, respiratory symptoms deteriorated, and serum C-reactive protein elevated. No evidence of infection was seen. Three hyperbaric oxygen treatments were given on the basis of suspected decompression sickness, and symptoms subsequently resolved. The recently diagnosed mitral valve regurgitation and inflammatory response were considered to have contributed to the prolongation of symptoms.

Morishima, Nakashima, Suzuki, Yamami, Aoshima (2018). A diver with immersion pulmonary oedema and prolonged respiratory symptoms. Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 2018 Dec;48(4):259-261. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30517959