This review considers the pathophysiology of air embolism that occurs as a result of diving and iatrogenic accidents. Various experimental therapies are classified according to their potential mechanism of action. The effectiveness and prospects for application to the clinical situation are assessed for each therapy. Hyperbaric oxygen remains the most effective therapy, and it is one that is simple to apply. The physiologic changes that occur after gas embolism are complex, however, and future improvements in therapy will demand close clinical supervision and multiple individually tailored therapeutic decisions rather than a simple protocol.

Dutka, , , , , , , , (1985). A review of the pathophysiology and potential application of experimental therapies for cerebral ischemia to the treatment of cerebral arterial gas embolism. Undersea biomedical research, 1985 Dec;12(4):403-21. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4082344