ONJ appears to be associated with BPs; however, the pathophysiology, incidence, and co-morbidities require further investigation. The major risk factors identified to date appear to be cancer (or chemotherapy for cancer) and dental procedures or oral trauma. A clear definition of ONJ is critical to understanding this disease entity. Although recommendations regarding the prevention and management of ONJ exist, clinical studies are needed to establish more definitive guidelines for the management of ONJ. The use of intensive hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be beneficial to patients with ONJ.

Landesberg, Wilson, Grbic, , , , , , (2006). Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: conclusions based on an analysis of case series. Dentistry today, 2006 Aug;25(8):52, 54-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16925161