BK virus is a major cause of late onset haemorrhagic cystitis in patients undergoing Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT). The evidence for the management of BK Virus Associated Haemorrhagic Cystitis (BKV-HC) is limited. Much of the published data consists of non-randomised case series and case reports. To our knowledge this is the first systematic review for the management of BKV-HC in both paediatric and adult populations. Our primary outcome was to examine the evidence for strategies of 1) prevention and 2) cessation of haematuria associated with BKV. Secondary outcomes were to assess the toxicity of treatment strategies and devise management recommendations for clinicians. We performed a systematic review of the PubMed and Central databases to evaluate the current evidence. A search protocol was prepared and registered with the PROSPERO database (CRD42017082442). The review was conducted in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement and AMSTAR (Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews) guidelines. Results were classified by treatment type. Qualitative analysis of included articles was performed, and grades of recommendations were devised for each treatment. Of 896 titles screened, 44 articles were included for qualitative analysis. The overall quality of evidence was low. There is insufficient evidence to recommend prophylactic quinolones. 40 studies evaluated treatments for established BKV-HC. There are no high-quality comparative studies. Cidofovir is the most studied treatment but quality of evidence is low, and grade of recommendation is weak. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, Fibrin glue, Leflunomide, Sodium Pentosan Polysulfate, Intravesical Alum and Radiological embolisation have all been described but the effectiveness of these treatments is unclear. There remains no clear specific treatment for BKV-HC. An effective multi-disciplinary approach leading to early recognition and initiation of treatment is encouraged. The development of novel therapies followed by well-designed clinical studies are urgently needed.

Aldiwani, Tharakan, Al-Hassani, Gibbons, Pavlu, Hrouda (2019). BK Virus Associated Haemorrhagic Cystitis. A systematic review of current prevention and treatment strategies. International journal of surgery (London, England), 2019 Feb;63():34-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30711618