Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has not been associated with the complication of pneumothorax. Candidates for this procedure are predisposed to develop pneumothorax due to underlying infectious interstitial emphysema. This risk factor is increased by the hyperbaric consequences of lavage and also by the cough induced by bronchoscopic examination. While BAL remains a useful diagnostic procedure, patients should be monitored for occurrence of pneumothorax.

Krueger, Sayre, Karetzky, , , , , , (1988). Bronchoalveolar lavage-induced pneumothorax. Chest, 1988 Aug;94(2):440-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3396430