The objective of the study is to explore the etiology, clinical manifestations, imaging features, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cerebral air embolism complicated computed tomography (CT) scan-guided percutaneous liver biopsy. A case of air embolism was developed in the brain during a CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the liver. In addition, retrospective analysis was performed on the previously reported typical cases of cerebral air embolism secondary to CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. Cerebral air embolism has been recognized as a potentially fatal but extremely rare complication following CT-guided percutaneous liver or lung biopsy. It was usually caused by cough, positive pressure ventilation, incorrect puncture position, repeated punctures, cavity or cyst in the target sites, and vascular inflammatory lesions. Clinicians should focus on timely and correct diagnosis of this complication during their interventional procedures. The current main treatment for this complication has been hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Sun, Sui, Zhang, Zhang, Xu (2018). Cerebral air embolism during percutaneous computed tomography scan-guided liver biopsy. Journal of cancer research and therapeutics, 2018 ;14(7):1650-1654. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30589054