Clostridial infections, particularly myonecrosis, can be fulminant and fatal; they often arise without an obvious history of trauma. The cardinal diagnostic clues (Figure 3) must be recognized so that specific therapy can be initiated promptly and mortality can be minimized. Aggressive medical care, including crystalloid fluid therapy and antibiotics, must be initiated quickly. Vasopressors should be avoided. Antitoxin has no role in contemporary care. Early hyperbaric oxygenation is beneficial, but it should be preceded by decompressive fasciotomy if limb edema is marked. Otherwise, definitive debridement or amputation is best delayed until after hyperbaric therapy is begun. Regionalization of care and long transport times also must be considered seriously in determining the therapeutic approach.

Cline, Turnbull, , , , , , , (1985). Clostridial myonecrosis. Annals of emergency medicine, 1985 May;14(5):459-66. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3885807