Hyperbaric oxygen has been used as an adjunctive measure in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis. The aim of this systematic literature review was to analyze the outcome and the complications of hyperbaric oxygen for chronic osteomyelitis. Forty-five of 96 studies reporting the use of hyper-baric oxygen for 460 patients with chronic osteomyelitis met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed qualitatively. All patients previously received antibiotics and surgical debridement. Mixed bacterial flora was detected in most of the studies. Staphylococcus aureus was the isolated pathogen in 12 (60%) of the 20 cohort and in 4 (20%) of the 20 case studies. Adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen was effective in 16 (80%) of the 20 cohort and 19 (95%) of the 20 case studies. Overall, 308 (73.5%) of 419 patients with complete data had a successful outcome and no reported relapse. Available evidence supports a potentially beneficial role of adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen, especially in refractory cases of chronic osteomyelitis. [Orthopedics. 2018; 41(4):193-199.].

Savvidou, Kaspiris, Bolia, Chloros, Goumenos, Papagelopoulos, Tsiodras (2018). Effectiveness of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for the Management of Chronic Osteomyelitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Orthopedics, 2018 Jul;41(4):193-199. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30035798