Acanthamoeba is the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and usually fatal disease. We report a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed brain abscesses caused by Acanthamoeba during induction therapy. Multimodal antimicrobial chemotherapy and hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulted in complete resolution of symptoms and of pathology as seen by magnetic resonance imaging.

Maritschnegg, Sovinz, Lackner, Benesch, Nebl, Schwinger, Walochnik, Urban, (2011). Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia successfully treated with multimodal antimicrobial therapy and hyperbaric oxygen. Journal of clinical microbiology, 2011 Jan;49(1):446-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21084511