Postradiation hemorrhagic cystitis is a well known long-term complication of radiation therapy occurring in 3-6 % of patients. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis not responding to conventional management. This article reviews experiences with HBO for radiogenic cystitis after prostate cancer. All patients treated for hemorrhagic cystitis with HBO between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The HBO procedure was performed for 130 min/day at 1.4 atmospheres overpressure. Patient demographics, type of radiotherapy, onset and severity of hematuria and time between first hemorrhagic episode and beginning of HBO were evaluated. The effect of HBO was defined as complete or partial (lower RTOG/EORTC grade) resolution of hematuria. A total of 10 patients with radiogenic cystitis and a median age of 76 years were treated with a median of 30 HBO treatment sessions. Patients received primary, adjuvant, salvage and high dose rate (HDR) radiotherapy (60-78 Gy). First episodes of hematuria occurred after a median of 41 months following completion of radiotherapy and HBO was performed 11 months after the first episode of hematuria. After a median 35-month follow-up 80% experienced complete resolution, one patient suffered a one-off new hematuria and in one patient a salvage cystectomy was necessary. No adverse effects were documented. The experiences indicate that HBO is a safe and effective therapy option in treatment-resistant radiogenic cystitis but prospective clinical trials are needed for a better evaluation.
Degener, Strelow, Pohle, Lazica, Windolf, Zumbé, Roth, Brandt, (2012). [Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of hemorrhagic radiogenic cystitis after prostate cancer]. Der Urologe. Ausg. A, 2012 Dec;51(12):1735-40. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23076451