Vascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are common. Since impaired oxygen balance in plasma plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic DM-associated complications, the administration of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been recommended to influence development of vascular complications. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy involves inhalation of 100% oxygen under elevated pressure from 1.6 to 2.8 absolute atmospheres in hyperbaric chambers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases plasma oxygen solubility, contributing to better oxygen diffusion to distant tissues and preservation of the viability of tissues reversibly damaged by atherosclerosis-induced ischemia, along with microcirculation restoration. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy exerts antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and cardioprotective effects by altering the level and composition of plasma fatty acids and also by promoting signal transduction through membranes, which are impaired by hyperglycemia and hypoxia. In addition, HBOT affects molecules involved in the regulation of nitric oxide synthesis and in that way exerts anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects in patients with DM. In this review, we explore the recent literature related to the effects of HBOT on DM-related vascular complications.

Resanović I, Zarić B, Radovanović J, Sudar-Milovanović E, Gluvić Z, Jevremović D, Isenović ER. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy and Vascular Complications in Diabetes Mellitus. Angiology. 2020 Nov;71(10):876-885. doi: 10.1177/0003319720936925. Epub 2020 Jul 8. PMID: 32638622.