Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells of the islets of Langerhans that results in life-long insulin dependence (1). Given the immunological nature of the disease, numerous antigen-specific as well as nonantigen-specific tolerance induction or immune deviation strategies have been developed as treatments for T1D. Although successful in experimental models, results of studies to translate these strategies to humans have been discouraging (2–5). This has prompted researchers to explore safer, broader, and more effective immunotherapeutic approaches to prevent, treat, and/or revert T1D. In this issue of Diabetes, Faleo et al. (6) show compelling data regarding use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in autoimmune diabetes using nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This model spontaneously develops T1D, a feature that closely mimics human disease. Faleo et al. (6) show that hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) significantly protects from T1D when initiated early in the disease course, but not after its onset, suggesting that this approach could be useful in high-risk individuals.

Rajagopalan, Kudva, and David (2012). Is HOT a Cool Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes?Diabetes July 2012, 61(7). https://doi.org/10.2337/db12-0527