Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a serious side effect of bisphosphonate use in patients with osteoporosis, Paget’s disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy, metastatic bone disease and multiple myeloma, although recently this complication has also been reported in patients under non-bisphosphonate medication, such as denosumab and bevacizumab. The occurrence of ONJ is higher in oncology patients treated with high-dose iv bisphosphonates than in osteoporosis patients treated with oral bisphosphonates. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed, the exact pathogenic mechanism of ONJ still remains unclear. As treatment protocols based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) do not exist, we critically reviewed the existing data concerning the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw, including the most recent data for the use of teriparatide and hyperbaric oxygen.

Spanou, Lyritis, Chronopoulos, Tournis, , , , , (2015). Management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: a literature review. Oral diseases, 2015 Nov;21(8):927-36. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25732104