Radiation proctitis is radiation-induced rectal mucositis, occurring as a result of radiation therapy for various pelvic malignancies. The management of radiation proctitis is challenging as guidelines are not currently available, and studies of the various treatment modalities are limited. There are various medical, endoscopic, and surgical measures for treating chronic radiation proctitis. Medical options such as anti-inflammatory agents, antioxidants, formalin application, and hyperbaric oxygen may improve bleeding related to chronic radiation proctitis. Endoscopic measures such as argon plasma coagulation are effective and safe. Surgery is considered for refractory or severe cases. A review and discussion of the different treatment modalities is presented.

Tabaja, Sidani (2018). Management of Radiation Proctitis. Digestive diseases and sciences, 2018 Sep;63(9):2180-2188. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29948565