Macular edema was first described more than a century ago, and its medical treatment has made great progress thanks to recent pharmacological advances. Administration is topical, local (peri- or intraocular), or systemic. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and corticosteroids are the mainstay therapy when inflammation is involved, as well as acetazolamide in many cases. More recently, molecules such as protein kinase-C- beta inhibitors and anti-VEGF agents are already or will soon be available, to add to our therapeutic armamentarium. Perhaps combination therapy will become popular, as is the case with age-related macular degeneration.

Conrath, , , , , , , , (2007). [Medical treatment of macular edema].¬†Journal francais d’ophtalmologie, 2007 Sep;30(7):748-56.¬†https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17878829