Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is associated with a risk of barotrauma to the middle ear. This prospective study of 82 patients undergoing long-term therapy for chronic conditions was designed to measure the incidence and severity of middle ear barotrauma. Twenty-four patients (29.3%) required the insertion of ventilation tubes for otalgia, significantly more of whom were suffering from radionecrosis of the head and neck region (P < 0.01). Thirty-two of the remaining 58 patients (55%) underwent specialist ENT assessment by otoscopy and tympanometry. Five ears (8%) showed the otoscopic changes of barotrauma (TEED grade 3 or 4), and one ear (2%) showed tympanometric evidence of a middle ear effusion (Type B tympanogram). We conclude that despite careful tuition in pressure equalization and the appropriate use of ventilation tubes, up to 8% of ears sustain significant barotrauma. Tympanometry is unreliable in detecting these changes, otoscopy provides the most reliable screening technique. Blanshard, Toma, Bryson, Williamson, , , , , (1996). Middle ear barotrauma in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Clinical otolaryngology and allied sciences, 1996 Oct;21(5):400-3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8932942