We report a 38-year-old woman presenting with febrile neutropenia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and invasive mucormycosis. Bone marrow aspirate was characteristic of AML minimally differentiated (WHO classification 2008). Flow cytometric immunophenotyping analysis showed blasts positive for CD7, CD33, CD34, CD71, CD117, HLA-DR, MPO, and TdT, with normal karyotype (46, XX), and the absence of the FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. The patient’s management included chemotherapy with cytarabine and idarubicin, and treatment with liposomal amphotericin B, deferasirox, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and antibiotics. Nowadays, she is in complete hematological remission, and CT images of control are normal. Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon and severe condition, which involves diagnosis and treatment challenges. Clinical features and predisposing factors should be highlighted in order to enhance the suspicion index, contributing to early diagnosis and disease control. Our aim is to report classical features of this uncommon condition and to emphasize usual management challenges.

Ribeiro, dos Santos, Paixão, Cruz, Danilow, Campos, , , (2013). Mucormycosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia successfully treated with liposomal amphotericin B associated with deferasirox and hyperbaric oxygen. Mycopathologia, 2013 Apr;175(3-4):295-300. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23443451