Recent studies shows that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy exerts some protective effects against neural injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the neuroprotective effects of HBO following sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 14 per group): Sham-operated (SH) group, SH + HBO group, SNT group, and SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO groups (100% oxygen at 2.0 atm absolute, 60 min/day for five consecutive days beginning on 1 day before and immediately after nerve transaction, respectively). Spinal cord segments of the sciatic nerve and related dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) were removed 4 weeks after nerve transection for biochemical assessment of malodialdehyde (MDA) levels in spinal cord, biochemical assessment of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT) activities in spinal cord, immunohistochemistry of caspase-3, cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2), S100beta (S100ß), and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) in spinal cord and DRG. The results revealed that MDA levels were significantly decreased in the SNT + pre-HBO group, while SOD and CAT activities were significantly increased in SNT + pre- and SNT + post-HBO treated rats. Attenuated caspase-3 and COX-2 expression, and TUNEL reaction could be significantly detected in the HBO-treated rats after nerve transection. Also, HBO significantly increased S100ß expression. Based on these results, we can conclude that pre- and post-HBO therapy had neuroprotective effects against sciatic nerve transection-induced degeneration.

Shams, Khalatbary, Ahmadvand, Zare, Kian (2017). Neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy on neuronal death induced by sciatic nerve transection in rat. BMC neurology, 2017 Dec;17(1):220. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29246132