The practice of scuba diving is associated with two specific medical problems: barotrauma directly related to changes in ambient pressure, and decompression sickness related to the uptake and the release of inert gases by the body. Neurological symptoms are frequent in severe diving accidents. They may arise following either barotrauma or decompression sickness, and often require urgent treatment in a hyperbaric chamber. Asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and spontaneous pneumothorax increase the risk of lung barotrauma and represent contraindications to diving.

Héritier, Russi, , , , , , , (1993). [Scuba diving: barotrauma, decompression sickness, pulmonary contra-indications]. Schweizerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 1993 Feb;123(5):161-5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8438138