Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), referring to the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure, exerts neuroprotective effects after ischemic stroke via various mechanisms. It has been demonstrated that HBOT modulates the synthesis and degradation of hormones. Leptin, an adipose derived hormone, has been found to confer neuroprotection following experimental stroke. However, it is not known whether HBOT alters leptin concentrations after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) in the rat. In this present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of HBOT on the serum concentration of leptin in rats subjected to pMCAo. HBOT was initiated 48 hrs after experimental pMCAo, at 2.5 atmospheres absolutes with 100% oxygen, 1 hr a day for 10 consecutive days. Body weight, neurobehavioral deficits and infarct size were evaluated. Blood was collected on day 1 and day 16 following HBOT. Serum leptin concentrations were measured with ELISA. Delayed HBOT reduced infarct size and improved neurobehavioral scores. Decreased serum levels of leptin were found in treated and untreated pMCAo animals, compared to the sham group on day 1 (P > 0.05) and day 16 (P < 0.05). However, no statistical significance was found between HBOT and the air group. We concluded that the neuroprotective effects of delayed HBOT in pMCAo rats were unlikely to be exerted through changes in the serum concentration of leptin. Mu, Ostrowski, Krafft, Tang, Zhang, , , , (2013). Serum leptin levels decrease after permanent MCAo in the rat and remain unaffected by delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Medical gas research, 2013 Mar;3(1):8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510433