A collected series from the English literature up to 1984 of spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis (SCM) is presented in order to reveal possible common denominators. SCM was associated with malignancy (colonic cancer and leukaemia), diabetes, and injections in descending order. C. perfringens was isolated in more than 70% of the cases followed by C. septicum in 27 and C. novyi in 7%. The pathogenesis is still speculative but is thought to be due to bacteraemia especially from the gastrointestinal tract, due to growth of dormant spores in tissue following antecedent trauma or as an infection descending along the ilio-psoas sheath from a gastrointestinal focus. The symptoms are pain in an oedematous, discoloured, crepitant area with haemorhagic bullae and often shock. The diagnosis is based on the clinical findings and Gram-positive rods in the exudate. Treatment instituted promptly constitutes of surgical debridement, antibiotics and hyperbaric oxygen. The prognosis of SCM is worse than for other cases of clostridial myonecrosis and survival was in this collected series only 19%.
Nordkild, Crone, , , , , , , (1986). Spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis. A collective review and report of a case. Annales chirurgiae et gynaecologiae, 1986 ;75(5):274-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3827167