Uremic encephalopathy (UE), a toxic metabolic encephalopathy, is an uncommon complication resulting from endogenous uremic toxins in patients with severe renal failure. UE syndrome can range from mild inattention to coma. The imaging findings of UE include cortical or subcortical involvement, basal ganglia involvement and white matter involvement. The basal ganglia type is uncommon, although previous cases have reported that Asian patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are usually affected. A 32 year-old woman with a history of non-diabetic hemodialysis for 3 years suffered from severe involuntary movement, and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed symmetrical T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2FLAIR) hyperintense nonhemorrhagic lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia. She was diagnosed with UE as syndrome of bilateral basal ganglia lesions, due to a combined effect of uremic toxins and hyperthyroidism. After treatment with high frequency and high flux dialysis, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and declining parathyroid hormone, the patient achieved complete remission with normal body movement and was discharged. UE with basal ganglia involvement is uncommon, although generally seen in Asian patients with DM. Our case reported a hemodialysis patient that had non-diabetic UE with typical bilateral basal ganglia lesions, presenting with involuntary movement.

Gong, Li, Yu, Wu, Yin, Mei, Liu (2018). Syndrome of uremic encephalopathy and bilateral basal ganglia lesions in non-diabetic hemodialysis patient: a case report. BMC nephrology, 2018 Dec;19(1):370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30567505