With the advent and clinical application of recombinant chemical and cellular mediators of wound healing and a better understanding of the importance of serial debridement, most foot wounds can be healed with little morbidity. Despite these advances, there remains the recalcitrant wound for which more heroic efforts seem warranted. For these patients, advanced wound healing technologies, orthobiologics, and bioengineered alternative tissues may tilt the scales in the direction of definitive wound closure.

Kim, Heilala, Steinberg, Weinraub, , , , , (2007). Bioengineered alternative tissues and hyperbaric oxygen in lower extremity wound healing. Clinics in podiatric medicine and surgery, 2007 Jul;24(3):529-46, x. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17613390