Hyperbaric Oxygen for Hospitalized patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

One quarter of patients with ulcerative colitis will develop a severe acute exacerbation of disease during their lifetime. Despite high dose corticosteroids, half of these patients will fail subsequent medical rescue therapy, and half will require colectomy within 5 years. Dulai and colleagues report the results of a fascinating, double blind, sham controlled, proof of concept trial which demonstrated that administration of short term hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) at the point of presentation with severe UC was able to rapidly induce short term remission and avoid the need for urgent second line medical rescue therapy. Further dose finding studies are underway.

Multifocal osteonecrosis in a patient with anamnestic ulcerative colitis. Is there a relationship with the disease and the use of glucocorticoids twenty years before? A brief review of the literature.

In 2013 a 40 year old man came to visit in our Rheumatology Unit because of a recent bilateral shoulder and hip pain. He had been treated from 1990 to 2000 with Cyclosporin A and Sulfasalazyn because of an ulcerative colitis which was completely in remission from 2000 . Glucocorticoids at the mean daily dose of 50 mg were administered only in the first period (1990-92). X-plain rays showed a suspicious multifocal osteonecrosis of both femoral and humeral heads. Magnetic Resonance confirmed the diagnosis (stage III and IV following Ficat and Arlet’s criteria). The patient was treated with a cycle of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with two cycles of intravenous clodronate and with a 2-month cycle of teriparatide.

Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation combined with hyperbaric oxygen treatment for repair of traumatic brain injury.

Transplantation of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) for repair of traumatic brain injury has been used in the clinic. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment has long been widely used as an adjunctive therapy for treating traumatic brain injury. UC-MSC transplantation combined with HBO treatment is expected to yield better therapeutic effects on traumatic brain injury. In this study, we established rat models of severe traumatic brain injury by pressurized fluid (2.5-3.0 atm impact force). The injured rats were then administered UC-MSC transplantation via the tail vein in combination with HBO treatment.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy stimulates colonic stem cells and induces mucosal healing in patients with refractory ulcerative colitis: a prospective case series.

Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is used as part of treatment in a variety of clinical conditions. Its use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis has been reported in few clinical reports. We report the effect of HBO on refractory ulcerative colitis exploring one potential mechanism of action. A review of records of patients with refractory ulcerative colitis who received HBO was conducted. Clinical and histopathological scoring was utilised to evaluate the response to HBO therapy (HBOT). All patients manifested clinical improvement by the 40th cycle of HBOT. The median number of stool frequency dropped from seven motions/day (range=3-20) to 1/day (range=0.5-3), which was significant (z=-4.6, p<0.001).

Reinforcement of the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm by hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection is the most severe complication in cystic fibrosis patients. It is characterised by antibiotic-tolerant biofilms in the endobronchial mucus with zones of oxygen (O2) depletion mainly due to polymorphonuclear leucocyte activity. Whilst the exact mechanisms affecting antibiotic effectiveness on biofilms remain unclear, accumulating evidence suggests that the efficacy of several bactericidal antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin is enhanced by stimulation of the aerobic respiration of pathogens, and that lack of O2 increases their tolerance. Reoxygenation of O2-depleted biofilms may thus improve susceptibility to ciprofloxacin possibly by restoring aerobic respiration.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for chronic antibiotic-refractory ischemic pouchitis.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been shown to be efficacious in treating various conditions, including perianal Crohn’s disease. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old male with a history of ulcerative colitis, who underwent a total proctocolectomy and two-stage J-pouch construction. He later developed chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis with endoscopic features of ischemia. At the completion of HOBT-a total of 20 sessions of 100% oxygen at 2.5-3.0 atmospheres absolute for 60-90 minutes per session-a repeat pouchoscopy showed marked improvement of endoscopic mucosal inflammation. HBOT is known to increase tissue oxygenation, reduce tissue hypoxia, alter inflammatory pathways and promote tissue healing.