The high risk group of patients with neuroblastoma are children over 1 year with stage IV disease. Most series report a maximum of 20% survival at 5 years. For recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, cure rates are not reported in the literature, but they are nil. Any treatment for recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV remains a therapeutic dilemma. The outcome of radiation therapy is variable. A very important factor in tumour treatment remains tumour hypoxia, and others, such as metabolic factors, also play a role. Combined application of radiation modifiers may influence the final survival rate. In an attempt to improve the survival of recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV, hyperbaric oxygen and radioionated meta-Iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) was used in a clinical setting. Although survival may not be used as a determinant of the usefulness of a treatment for stage IV neuroblastoma disease, a better one is not available. In this study, at 28 months, a cumulative probability of survival of 32% was recorded for patients treated with [131I]MIBG and hyperbaric oxygen compared to 12% for [131I]MIBG treatment alone. These preliminary results are promising but further studies are needed to reveal substantial therapeutic gain.

Voûte, van der Kleij, De Kraker, Hoefnagel, Tiel-van Buul, Van Gennip, , , (1995). Clinical experience with radiation enhancement by hyperbaric oxygen in children with recurrent neuroblastoma stage IV. European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990), 1995 ;31A(4):596-600. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7576976