Effective postoperative pain control reduces postoperative morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of intrathecal morphine, ketamine, and their combination with bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia in major abdominal cancer surgery. Prospective, randomized, double-blind. Academic medical center.  Ninety ASA I-III patients age 30 to 50 years were divided randomly into three groups: the morphine group (group M) received 10 mg of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% in 2 mL volume and 0.3 mg morphine in 1 mL volume intrathecally. The ketamine group (group K) received 0.1 mg/kg ketamine in 1 mL volume instead of morphine. The morphine + ketamine group (group K + M) received both 0.3 mg morphine and 0.1 mg/kg ketamine in 1 mL volume intrathecally. Postoperative total morphine consumption, first request of analgesia, visual analog score (VAS), and side effects were recorded.

Abd El-Rahman, Mohamed, Mohamed, Mostafa, , , , , (2017). Effect of Intrathecally Administered Ketamine, Morphine, and Their Combination Added to Bupivacaine in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Cancer Surgery a Randomized, Double-Blind Study. Pain medicine (Malden, Mass.), 2017 May;():. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28520955