In this review the poor clinical gains from hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and misonidazole (MISO) are discussed critically. The biggest factor reducing clinical gains is almost certainly reoxygenation. Other possible reasons include vasoconstrictive self-limitation of HBO and neurotoxicity of MISO, so that the radiosensitization of any hypoxic cells in human tumors was not adequate. Nevertheless, there have been some positive clinical results, so that hypoxic cells can sometimes be a problem in some tumors, especially those of the head and neck, even after multiple fraction radiotherapy. While hypoxic cell radioresistance is obviously only one form of radioresistance it is a large factor of resistance when hypoxic cells are present. Current developments are briefly reviewed: the ‘new’ clinical sensitizers Ro-03-8799 and SR-2508 which should be 3 to 10 times more efficient than MISO if viable hypoxic cells are present; and methods of measuring which human tumors might have significant numbers of hypoxic viable cells.

Fowler, , , , , , , , (1985). Eighth annual Juan del Regato lecture. Chemical modifiers of radiosensitivity–theory and reality: a review.¬†International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 1985 Apr;11(4):665-74.¬†https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3884559