A pilot study on intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) combined with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in nonresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed in 31 patients (mean age: 66.2 years, range: 51-80; 10 anatomically and functionally, 21 functionally, nonresectable; 20 squamous-cell, 11 adenocarcinoma). The tumor was exposed by lateral thoracotomy and a staging lymph node dissection was performed (final staging 7 T1, 16 T2, 8 T3; 11 nodal positive). Ten to 20 Gy IORT (energy: 7-20 MeV electrons) were delivered to the tumor. Unilateral continuous positive airway pressure ventilation of the diseased lung was used to reduce the amount of healthy lung tissue in the IORT port and to minimize the ventilatory movement. Secondary collimation and direct shielding of radio-sensitive structures within the IORT port by aluminium sheets were used to further reduce collateral damage. Four weeks after IORT, 46 Gy EBRT (2 Gy/day 5 times a week; 8-23 MeV photons) were administered to the mediastinum and to the tumor-bearing area on an outpatient basis. In nodal positive cases the mediastinal dose was increased to 56 Gy. Twenty-three patients were evaluable. In 13 complete, in 8 partial (50-97% regression) and in 2 minor response has been achieved. Five patients experienced a recurrence (local only: 2; local and distant: 1; distant only: 2). Twelve patients died of underlying cardio-respiratory disorders within 6 to 25 months after IORT; 7 died of cancer. The overall 5-year survival rate including the incidental deaths is 14.7%. The recurrence-free survival rate is 53.2%.

Smolle-Juettner, Geyer, Kapp, Ratzenhofer, Stuecklschweiger, Kaufmann, Smolle, Pongratz, (1994). Evaluating intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Five years experience. European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery, 1994 ;8(10):511-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7826646