Background Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common disorder that has a complex and heterogeneous etiology. Some evidence suggests that inflammation and oxidative stress may have a pathophysiological link. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBOT) has been proposed as a possible therapy. Because HBOT is an expensive treatment with significant commercial opportunity, it is essential for it to have a research evidence base prior to widespread use.

Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature evaluating the clinical impact of HBOT on behavior and development in ASD with a view to inform practice.
Methods A literature search of electronic scientific databases focusing on clinical outcomes of HBOT in ASD was performed. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were independently assessed by reviewers and were classified according to the American Academy of Neurology Guidelines. Recommendations were made based on the evidence.

Results Five articles were reviewed with data extraction. Based on the AAN Classification of Recommendations the data supported a rating of “A”, indicating that HBOT is not effective for treating children and youth with ASD.

Conclusions Current evidence does not support HBOT as an effective treatment for children and youth with ASD.

Keywords Autism; Hyperbaric oxygen therapy; Treatment; Review

Goldfarb C, Genore L, Hunt C, Flanagan J, Handley-Derry M, Jethwa A, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of children and youth with autism spectrum disorders: an evidence-based systematic review. Res Autism Spectr Disord[Internet]. 2016 Sep-Oct [cited 2017 Aug 28];29-30:1-7. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1750946716300563?via%3Dihub