Radiation cystitis with macroscopic hematuria has been a frustrating clinical problem for urologists. Since 1985 hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used to treat this disease, showing favorable results. Between November 1989 and October 1992, 20 female patients with hemorrhagic radiation cystitis were treated with HBO at a pressure of 2.5 atm abs, breathing 100% O2 for 100 min in our multiplace hyperbaric chamber. After an average of 44 HBO sessions, macroscopic hematuria was completely halted in 16 patients (80%) and markedly decreased in 2 patients (10%). Comparison of the cystoscopic findings before and after HBO showed a significant decrease in hemorrhagic sites and telangiectasis of the bladder mucosa. One patient had urinary frequency and urgency without hematuria during her hospital stay. After 30 sessions of HBO therapy, her symptoms subsided, and the cystoscopic findings were much improved. Only one patient failed to respond to HBO and underwent ileal conduit diversion. The mean follow-up period was 14 mo. (5-41 mo.). From our clinical results and cystoscopic findings, we suggest that HBO is an effective and safe treatment for hemorrhagic radiation cystitis.

Lee, Liu, Chiao, Lin, , , , , (1994). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in hemorrhagic radiation cystitis: a report of 20 cases. Undersea & hyperbaric medicine : journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc, 1994 Sep;21(3):321-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7950806