We investigated the possible beneficial effects that hyperbaric oxygen therapy could offer in different brain structures affected by ventriculomegaly in pup rats submitted to experimental hydrocephalus. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were submitted to hydrocephalus by intracisternal injection of 10% kaolin into the cisterna magna. The animals were divided into four groups: control (n?=?5); control with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n?=?5); untreated hydrocephalic (n?=?10); hydrocephalic treated with HBOT (3ATA/2 h/day) (n?=?10). The treatment with HBOT was performed daily for 14 days post-induction of hydrocephalus. To evaluate the response to treatment, behavioral tests (open field, Morris water maze, and activity monitor) were performed. After 14 days, the animals were euthanized, and the brain was removed for histological (hematoxylin-eosin and solochrome-cyanine) and immunohistochemical (GFAP and Ki-67) studies. The hyperbaric treatment, although not causing changes in ventricular enlargement, resulted in a significant improvement in the behavioral performance (p?=?0.0001), with greater agility and exploration of the environment, preservation of spatial memory, and greater learning capacity (p?=?0.0001). Through the immunohistochemical study, the astrocytic activity (glial fibrillary acidic protein) in the corpus callosum (p?=?0.0001) and in the germinative matrix (p?=?0.0033) was significantly reduced as compared to that in the H group. The results suggest that hyperbaric treatment bettered the behavioral performance and offered benefits to the structures affected by the ventricular increase helping to recover the brain damages. In this way, the HBOT it can be considered an adjuvant therapy for the treatment of hydrocephalus.

da Silva, Feres, da Silva Beggiora, Machado, Menezes-Reis, Ara�jo, Brand�o, da Silva Lopes, (2018). Hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces astrogliosis and helps to recovery brain damage in hydrocephalic young rats. Child’s nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery, 2018 Jun;34(6):1125-1134. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29671042