In 15 patients with nonresectable non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (10 squamous, 1 large cell, 4 adenocarcinomas; T1-T3, N0-N2, all M0), lymph node dissection and intraoperative irradiation of the tumour (IORT) with doses between 10 and 20 Gy (11-20 MeV electron beam) was performed. Four weeks postoperatively 46-56 Gy external irradiation (8 or 23 MeV photons) was delivered to the mediastinum and 46 Gy to the tumour-bearing area. Four weeks postoperatively, 8 minor responses (MR, tumour regression between 4% and 45%) and 6 partial responses (PR, 50%-84%) were found. In 1 case, CT was inconclusive. Eighteen weeks after IORT, volumetry showed 3 CR, 9 PR (62% to 94%) and 1 28% MR. One patient died from intrabronchial hemorrhage 7 weeks after IORT (50% PR). Two others (both CR) died from unrelated causes, 6 and 12 months, respectively, after IORT. One patient (62% PR) died after 14 months from an unknown cause. Another patient died at 15 months from local relapse after CR. The latest CT volume assessment between 7.5 and 21.5 months, respectively, yielded 8 CR, and 1 63% PR. One further case of local CR has developed contralateral pulmonary metastasis after 10 months. All these patients are alive and well. The median time elapsed since IORT is 12.5 months, 10 patients have survived more than 12 months.

Juettner, Arian-Schad, Leitner, Porsch, Flueckiger, Kopp, Ebner, Smolle, (1990). Intraoperative radiation with external irradiation: an alternative for nonresectable non-small-cell lung cancer? European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery, 1990 ;4(2):85-9; discussion 90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2158802