Computer simulations have been made of four radiotherapy fractionation regimes either in current use or proposed for clinical trials of misonidazole. A variety of cell-survival parameters and reoxygenation patterns have been used. The models allow the relative importance of repair capacity, reoxygenation rate, and dose per fraction to be assessed for these four schedules in the presence or absence of misonidazole. Unlike hyperbaric oxygen, the dose of misonidazole and the fractionation scheme to be used are critically interdependent, because the total drug dose is limited to 12 g/m2 by its neurotoxicity, regardless of the extent to which it is fractionated. The largest sensitizing effect is always demonstrated with six fractions, each given with 2 g/m2 of misonidazole. In the absence of reoxygenation a sensitizer enhancement ratio of 1.7 is predicted, but this falls to 1.1–1.2 if extensive reoxy-generation occurs. Less sensitization is observed with 30 fractions, each with 0.4 g/m2 of drug. However, for clinical use, the important question is which treatment kills the maximum number of tumour cells. Many of the simulations predict a marked disadvantage of reducing the fraction number for X rays alone. The circumstances in which this disadvantage is offset by the large SER values with a six-fraction schedule are few. The model calculations suggest that many small fractions, each with a low drug dose, are safest unless the clinician has some prior knowledge that a change in fraction number is not disadvantageous.
Denekamp, McNally, Fowler, Joiner, , , , , (1980). Misonidazole in fractionated radiotherapy: are many small fractions best? The British journal of radiology, 1980 Oct;53(634):981-90. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7426922