The AC133 antigen is a novel antigen selectively expressed on a subset of CD34+ cells in human fetal liver, bone marrow, and blood as demonstrated by flow cytometric analyses. In this study, we have further assessed the expression of AC133 on CD34+ cells in hemopoietic samples and found that there was a highly significant difference between normal bone marrow and cord blood versus aphereses (p <0.0001) but not between bone marrow and cord blood. Most of the clonogenic cells (67%) were contained in the CD34+AC133+ fraction. Compared with cultures of the CD34+AC133- cells, generation of progenitor cells in long-term culture on bone marrow stroma was consistently 10- to 100-fold higher in cultures initiated with CD34+AC133+ cells and was maintained for the 8-10 weeks of culture.
The National Brain Injury Rescue and Rehabilitation Study – a multicenter observational study of hyperbaric oxygen for mild traumatic brain injury with post-concussive symptoms
The National Brain Injury Rescue and Rehabilitation Project was established as a preliminary study to test the safety and practicality of multi-center hyperbaric oxygen administration for the post-concussive symptoms of chronic mild traumatic brain injury as a precursor to a pivotal, independent, multi-center, controlled clinical trial. This report presents the results for 32 subjects who completed a preliminary trial of hyperbaric oxygen several years before the passage of the 21 st Century Cures Act. This study anticipated the Act and its reassessment of clinical research. Subjects received 40-82 one-hour treatments at 1.5 atmospheres absolute 100% oxygen. Outcome measures included repeated self-assessment measures and automated neurocognitive tests. The subjects demonstrated improvement in 21 of 25 neurocognitive test measures observed. The objective neurocognitive test components showed improvement in 13 of 17 measures. Earlier administration of hyperbaric oxygen post injury, younger age at the time of injury and hyperbaric oxygen administration, military status, and increased number of hyperbaric oxygen administrations were characteristics associated with improved outcomes. There were no adverse events. Hyperbaric oxygen was found to be safe, inexpensive and worthy of clinical application in the 21 st Century model of facile data collection provided by recent research regulatory shifts in medicine. The study was approved by the ethics review committee of the Western Institutional Review Board (WIRB; Protocol #20090761).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy to improve cognitive dysfunction and encephalatrophy induced by NO for recreational use: a case report.
NO, or laughing gas, is generally used for anesthesia, especially in stomatology and pediatrics but is also commonly used recreationally. Cognitive dysfunction induced by the recreational use of NO is rare. Here, we present the case of an 18-year-old female with a history of having used NO recreationally for 5 months who suffered from encephalatrophy and severe cognitive dysfunction. All of the symptoms gradually subsided with ~20 days of treatment by hyperbaric oxygenation. We hypothesize that the long-term use of NO may have induced a chronic state of systemic hypoxia that further induced cerebral atrophy with impaired cognitive function. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is reported here for the first time as an important therapeutic element for treating NO toxicity due to recreational use.
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) serves as primary or adjunctive therapy for a diverse range of medical conditions. The indication for HBOT can be related to either pressure (decompression sickness or air emboli) or tissue hypoxia. It is now realized, that the combined action of hyperoxia and hyperbaric pressure, leads to significant improvement in tissue oxygenation while targeting both oxygen and pressure sensitive genes, resulting in improved mitochondrial metabolism with anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects. Clinical studies published in recent year’s present convincing evidence that HBOT can be the coveted neurotherapeutic method for brain repair. Here we discuss the multi-faceted role of HBOT in wound care in general and in neurotherapeutics in detail.
Case control study: hyperbaric oxygen treatment of mild traumatic brain injury persistent post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) persistent post-concussion syndrome (PPCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are epidemic in United States Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans. Treatment of the combined diagnoses is limited. The aim of this study is to assess safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) for mild TBI PPCS and PTSD. Thirty military subjects aged 18-65 with PPCS with or without PTSD and from one or more blast-induced mild-moderate traumatic brain injuries that were a minimum of 1 year old and occurred after 9/11/2001 were studied. The measures included symptom lists, physical exam, neuropsychological and psychological testing on 29 subjects (1 dropout) and SPECT brain imaging pre and post HBOT.
Increased circulating stem cells and better cognitive performance in traumatic brain injury subjects following hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may cause persistent cognitive dysfunction. A pilot clinical study was performed to determine if hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) treatment improves cognitive performance. It was hypothesized that stem cells, mobilized by HBO₂ treatment, are recruited to repair damaged neuronal tissue. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the relative abundance of stem cells in peripheral blood and cognitive performance during this clinical trial. The subject population consisted of 28 subjects with persistent cognitive impairment caused by mild to moderate TBI suffered during military deployment to Iraq or Afghanistan. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis was performed for stem cell markers in peripheral blood and correlated with variables resulting from standard tests of cognitive performance and post-traumatic stress disorder: ImPACT, BrainCheckers and PCL-M test results. HBO₂ treatment correlated with stem cell mobilization as well as increased cognitive performance. Together these results support the hypothesis that stem cell mobilization may be required for cognitive improvement in this population.