Ulcerative Colitis Pathology

Ulcerative colitis (UC) has 2 incidence peaks, one in adolescents and young adults and the other in middle-aged men and women.

Men and women are about equally affected. Overall, inflammatory bowel disease is more common in white individuals than in black or Asian Americans. Since World War II, the incidence of ulcerative colitis has increased.

However, although it is beginning to level off in Western countries, this disease continues to increase in Eastern Europe, Asia, and developing countries…

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Overview of Immune Mechanisms and Biological Treatments

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract associated with an imbalance of the intestinal microbiota.

Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the most widely known types of IBD and have been the focus of attention due to their increasing incidence.

Recent studies have pointed out genes associated with IBD susceptibility that, together with environment factors, may contribute to the outcome of the disease. In ulcerative colitis, there are several therapies available, depending on the stage of the disease.

HBOT for inflammatory bowel disease

Traditionally, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) has been used to treat a limited repertoire of disease, including decompression sickness and healing of problem wounds. However, some investigators have used HBOT to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Comprehensive searches were conducted in 8 scientific databases through 2011 to identify publications using HBOT in IBD. Human studies and animal models were collated separately.

Exposure to increased pressure or hyperbaric oxygen suppresses interferon-gamma secretion in whole blood cultures of healthy humans.

This study examines the effects of hyperoxia, increased atmospheric pressure, and hyperbaric oxygen on cytokine synthesis.

Five healthy volunteers were exposed to 90 min of room air, 100% oxygen, 10.5% oxygen at 2 atm abs, or 100% oxygen at 2 atm abs (HBO2). All subjects were blinded and randomly exposed to each of the 4 conditions.

Immediately before entering the chamber, immediately after exposure, and 3 and 24 h later, blood was drawn and stimulated ex vivo with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and phytohemagglutinin A (PHA).

Hyperbaric oxygen improves healing in experimental rat colitis.

This study was designed to investigate therapeutic effects of hyperbaric oxygen on experimentally induced colitis in rats by assessing oxidative tissue damage, neutrophil accumulation and histological changes.

Six groups of animals were used. No procedures were done in the sham group. In the vehicle group, 50% ethanol-induced colitis, and in four other groups, 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colonic inflammation was achieved. In acute and chronic colitis non-treatment groups, no other procedure was done. In acute and chronic colitis hyperbaric oxygen treatment groups, rats underwent hyperbaric oxygen treatment for two or fourteen days.

The Role of Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors in Mucosal Inflammation

Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism

In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa.